Saturday, May 23, 2020

The Nervous System, Cardiac Electrophysiology And The Brain

As we age, the brain can induce stressors on the heart. Recent evidence has emerged connecting mental stress and emotions in playing a major role in arrhythmias and sudden death. This research overviews current literature that has embraced physiology of the autonomic nervous system, cardiac electrophysiology and neuroscience in helping investigators determine the more precise nature of feedback mechanisms between the heart and the brain. Endeavoring to understand the feedback mechanisms of the brain, this study gives specific evidence in favor of growing consensus within the medical community that explores the role of cortical representation of emotions in relation to autonomic reflexes and the physiology of the myocardium, which includes pathological conditions that underlie the importance of studying the brain and heart from an interdisciplinary perspective. Keywords: Arrhythmia; autonomic nerves; myocardium; mental stress Abbreviations: PET= Positron emission tomography; ECG= Electrocardiogram; ICD= Implanted Cardiac Defibrillator; SVT= Supraventricular Tachycardia; RVR= Rapid Ventricular Response Head Vs. Heart: The Real Connection Between Ones Internal And External Environments The heart is an organ that requires careful examination and attention, especially in those with pre-existing cardiac conditions. This research review relates mental stress and arrhythmias specifically the connection between brain mechanisms that trigger the autonomic nerves and theShow MoreRelatedEssay about Hyperthyroidism: Thyroid Disease and the Heart1310 Words   |  6 PagesHyperthyroidism Chronic diseases such as hyperthyroidism can be debilitating if not managed well. Hyperthyroidism is an overactive thyroid gland that secrets too much hormones throughout the body causing many different clinical manifestations within all systems. The thyroid gland is located right underneath the larynx also known as the voice box, and straddling the windpipe. It consists of two types of tissues, follicular and parafollicular. The follicular tissues are the ones that secrete hormones containingRead MoreApplications of electrophysiology Introduction Electrophysiology is the study of electrical2800 Words   |  12 PagesApplications of electrophysiology Introduction Electrophysiology is the study of electrical properties of tissues and cells. It is said to be the â€Å"gold standard†, when investigating neuronal signalling (Massimo Scanziani et Michael Hà ¤usser, 2009). Measurements are taken of the voltage change or the electrical current on an extensive variety of scales from a single ion channel protein (e.g. potassium channels) to large organs (e.g. the heart). There are many areas in which electrophysiology can be appliedRead MoreCase Study : Mr Smith2222 Words   |  9 Pagesthe first hypertensive state where BP levels range between 140-159/90-99 mmHg. A normal BP is seen to be between the ranges of less than 120/80 mmHg. BP is determined by the force of blood exerted against the cardiac wall and the resistance of blood vessels. Thus, the force of his high cardiac output volume is likely the result of his hypertension. Mr. Smith monitors his BP and uses the medication Tritace irregularly. Hence, a diagnosis of hypertension raising concerns for other possible underlying

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Infectious Diseases Have A Great Impact On Morbidity And...

Infectious diseases have a great impact on morbidity and mortality of people living in long-term care facilities (LTCFs). It is reported that 1 to 3 million serious infections and several thousand outbreaks occur every year in LTCFs.1 Utsumi and colleagues showed in their review paper that influenza was the most reported outbreaks in LTCFs.2 The important source of influenza is infected person. An infected but asymptomatic person can shed the virus and be infectious.3 Influenza vaccination is the most effective way to prevent outbreaks. Older people, however, are less likely to be protected by vaccination because the antibody response in older people is considerably lower than in younger people.4 Older people living in LTCFs have frequent†¦show more content†¦Contact tracing, for example, enables us to identify transmission of the disease from infected persons to uninfected persons, and thus to treat their contacts for reducing the spread of infection.6 The study of network structure is a first step to infer the disease spread as well as to build better predictive model for future outbreaks. Contact matrix In social network analysis, people within a network are referred to as nodes, and the relationships between people are referred to as edges.7 Each pair of nodes (i, j) is either connected or disconnected, that is, the contact direction is not taken into account in the analysis for the influenza transmission. In the simplest data generation, the connections are defined as ÃŽ ´_ij={ââ€"ˆ(0 if i ↛j@1 if i →j)â” ¤ For undirected edges (i.e., ignoring directionality), the contact matrix is symmetric, and its elements are ÃŽ ´_ij. Node color, shape and size, and edge weight in the social network diagram are conducive to presenting individual properties and connection frequencies. For example in Figure 1 (the R code appears in APPENDIX), node colors in Figure 1(b) representing infectious status (light pink: infected and light blue: uninfected), and edge weights in

A Study Free Essays

string(39) " far more superior to the local firms\." Globalization Is one of those few phenomenon we hear about all the time and refer we try to analyses the impacts that globalization has had on the world. With help of some of the best, easy to comprehend examples, we try to understand how with time the business world has become more interactive, communicative and inter- dependent in nature and if it really has been in favor of firms competing in the market. Globalization in business is the integration process of the world through the use of international trading system. We will write a custom essay sample on A Study or any similar topic only for you Order Now It unifies the local and foreign markets to make the trading even easier for businesses. In yet other words, we can call globalization the recess of Increased Inter-connectedness among the countries In the areas of culture, economics and politics. Firms competing In the market place have the luxury to choose their option and maximize their business potentials by the way of participating globally. Such process as a result, simplifies the corporate process of canvassing materials, production, marketing and distribution of products and services. The information System (IS) is quite different from the usual trading and thus businesses get alliance with ease other than supplies and labor forces from there countries as long as they follow the rules set by the global economic authorities including the World Trade Centre. (Schools, 2005) Is it not amazing when we turn an apple I-pod upside down and it says, ‘designed In California (US), assembled In China? The clothes In our wardrobe, an English brand made with Chinese cotton, sewed by Indian hands, shipped on a French freighter crewed by Americans to a united Kingdom harbor. That’s Globalization. The word ‘Globalization’ has always been creeping on all of us as long as we can remember; however, it has never been so visible and impacting until recent years. Artificial constraints like tariffs have become unfettering and the businesses are expanding globally complicating the already existing competitive environment (Change Park, 2005). It can be easily explained as to how the fundamental nature of competition has changed in the industries in the global economy. This change in itself has a relentless pace and moving forward at all time. In words of Williamson (2004), globalization has had too many implications to the national economy. It has intensified inter-dependence among economies in the world market and countries and yes, their organizations as reflected in the knowledge cross borders, flow of goods and services and the financial capital. In short, globalization is the outcome of a large number of business firms competing against each other in a rising number of global economies. Globalization in true sense extends immense opportunities for firms competing in the 21st century highly competitive landscape. In a globalizes market, as confirmed by Khan (2006), the financial capital can be obtained from one national market and be used to buy raw materials in a second market. The manufacturing equipment can be purchased from a third national market and be sold in yet another one or say a fourth market. It has become challenging to determine the boundaries of any industry in the current world scenario. Wall-Mart could be a straightforward example to support Khan’s (2006) view point. Wall-Mart is the name, the brand, the global giant which is known world over and have been trying to achieve retailing with global pricing, sourcing and logistics without getting impacted by the global boundaries. The idea was to be able to easily move goods and be able to seamlessly use the pricing strategies among all its international operations as it had been able to do in case of its domestic stores. Hit 2007) said once that, Wall-Mart is pursuing this type of retailing (boundary-less) on an evolutionary basis. And, he was right when he quoted that because in the past few it has even more evident that Wall-Mart has actually put things in practice and joined hands with others to make boundary-less retailing possible. Let’s count on another example from the entertainment industry. Advancements in telecommunications and the interactive computer networks have made the boundaries of entert ainment industry look blur and shady. Networks such as CBS, HOBO, Fox and NBC not only compete among themselves but, also with Sony and Microsoft and perhaps others. It is not easy any more to define the boundaries of a particular industry and switchover, new industry ventures have become more frequent. Yet another major affect of globalization is the design, production, distribution and servicing of goods and services and that is visibly convincing enough to gain instances. A suitable example will be Toyota Motor Company. Global competitor Toyota Motor Company provides shall help us understand how this happens. Toyota Company’s products are in high demand internationally because of its initial emphasis on product reliability and superior customer service and support. Barbwire Mean (2004) figured out that because the demand for Toyota Motor Company’s products, it’s competitive actions have forced its global competitors to bring improvements in their operations and instill reliability and best customer service and support. And this act of following Toast’s example has changed quality service’s concept entirely. Almost any vehicle bought today across the globe, from virtually any manufacturer (company/brand) is of a higher quality and all of them extend better ND tailored service support which was not exactly the case before Toyota began competing successfully on a global scale. The firms competing in the global economy have to understand, looking at the wider perspective, that globalization has heightened the levels of performance standards in terms of quality, cost, productivity, product introduction time span and operational efficiency which could be referred to as the so called competitive dimensions. Now, these competitive dimensions not only affect the firms competing in the global economy but, also the firms competing in the domestic markets. And the reason is Customer Preference’. The customer purchases form a global brand rather than a domestic firm or brand as they know that the goods and services offered by the global competitors are far more superior to the local firms. You read "A Study" in category "Papers" Globalization has also led to the free movement of labor and capital after being recognized as a key source of competitive advantage and therefore, firms globally must understand the importance of keeping a better track of their work force. As Prospers (2005) mentions, the best people will come from, Just about anywhere. ‘ Hence, work force relationship plays a very dynamic role with the dawn of libations. A mixed labor is not always easy to manage and if not given importance in the beginning things may go awry at a later time. An easy to understand example would be pinpointing the Asian community, which is big part of the world population and a big chunk of which works in the west. Too many nationalities and ethnicities working together and it takes the right kind if thinking and planning to keep the things going. And, no doubt that takes careful planning and implementation. The business corporations must learn enough to positively deal with the ground realities of the current global competitive environment. Only those companies have the ability to make above average profits which are capable of meeting or rather exceeding the existing global standards. (Fink Holder, 2005) The term, ‘Global Village’ Increasing Interaction among businesses Emergence of global economy did create some interesting opportunities. And, that is why today Europe is the world’s largest single market, instead of USA, with 2005). Globalization History can create arguments of when or where it usually started and who have been the pioneers of globalization but we know for sure this is the present notations that the world has been experiencing. This new form of business relation and practices often referred to as global village which is radically changing the business environment and it is true and highly relevant, valid and accepted in today’s modern economy. In order for businesses to grow they must consider jumping into the globalization challenges to be able to compete and gain market shares. This has been the rules of the most successful business leaders around the world because the opportunity is there to bring different nations and businesses closer to one another. Look around many establishment and you can find that international businesses are all around, Franchising makes business easy to expand all over the world that a certain person who has the capacity to put up business from Asia can franchise a business in America and other countries examples are Mac Donald, Levis, Seven Eleven, Sarah Lee, Avon and many other stores scattered around the world because of globalization. McDonald’s fast food chain can be considered as a true example of globalization as true globalization means one company procuring, manufacturing and selling in many countries and McDonald’s does exactly the same. It operates in 119 countries and has successfully integrated all its operations internationally. There are many advantages in this process and anyone who would like to take a franchise business is almost assured of success because of its brand, they have ready market all over the world that has gained popularity, franchiser even offer full marketing assistance that makes your business franchise grows using their adaptable marketing expertise that they will be shared upon franchising such business. Supermarkets where we buy are daily need products; accommodate all those reduces from all over the world. Olive oil from Greece, apples from South Africa, wine from France and likewise thousands of more products from around the world. Deco’s in the I-J, the biggest network of supermarkets in the UK for an example is no such exception and has left no stone unturned to bring products from all over to be made available in their stores located in the I-J. That is Just another touch to globalization because you are not taking your products to other countries, perhaps but, you are certainly bringing in other products under one umbrella to be sold to a did range of customers. An important discussion could around the Business Process Outsourcing industry which makes a certain business maximize profit by partnership from other countries, businesses like JP Morgan and chase, MM, Telltale, CIT and other companies in Europe and America usually hire and establish businesses in countries such as the Philippines and India since they are highly skilled in English Communication. Usually Technical Assistance from customers around the world pretending they are a part of such company. Through this process the company like IBM can cut their labor expenses while they enjoy productivity because of their highly effective BOP in other countries while people from other countries enjoys a good privilege from their Job because of high salary. This can happen because of currency differences from other countries and an example is India where US $ 1 is equal to RSI. 47 in Indian currency. This means that they mutually benefit from this process. This has been the reasons why BOP is highly increasing demand of people. In the Indian and Philippines alone there are at least 250,000 Call Centre people needed to fill in the vacancies of various BOP Companies. The downturn of BOP industry is that on one hand it provides Job opportunities to people of one country and takes away the Jobs of people from yet another country. Online Trading is the cause of globalization and advancement in technology that businesses can easily tap in customers using the internet, they can gain high market potentials using their website acting as an store-front to advertise their products and services that can be open 24 hours a day seven days a week. Hotels and restaurants, Air Aviation and Local Businesses including individuals can easily use the internet to gather customers around the world. This can also cut cost their labor and transportation expenses through online participation, customers can simply fill in their information and take the orders and it will be delivered via cargo forwarding, the process is also convenient to their customers since it only takes a few clicks of a button to get an order. These practices also includes the Import- Export trading that includes free trade or open participation that can give opportunity to most business organization and individual to gain international customers around the world. Having taken the world by storm are the internet based social networking websites hose days. Backbone, Resort, Linked, Google, Namespace, Twitter, Bebop, Hi, Nettle and may be hundreds of other social networking sites are always a click away with internet in existence. Twitter for instance serves over 200 million people (users) worldwide and takes in 1. Billion requests every single day. That’s globalization, right there, opening doors to the world and let communication channels to work their way out without any hindrance. When there are so many countries and organizations that support globalization and understand that it is the right tool for the development of less developed countries ND maximizing profits for the developed countries, there exist some Co untries and unions who believed that Globalization is somehow negative and that only the strongest corporation makes the domination and small business may not grow. This to an extent is right. The lesser developed nations might take a set back as in the name of globalization and world trade their resources could be plundered or misused by the stronger nations. Remember, somewhere we talked about the BOP industry which makes the outsourcing company a massive profit, in a way that also by taking advantage of their needs. Some believed that credit based economy has not done any good but false claims that leads to heavy debt burden while some small businessman believes that globalization is only for imperialistic purposes. Yet another constraint, and cannot be ignored. Globalization certainly has made things better but, in the future might take inter-dependency or complete dependency to a all new Level of chaos in the world. Other European and Middle East Countries somehow they believed that globalization may only favor the internationally known companies and this is not a free trade but the opposite. They re the Anti-Globalization Communities who are against this process, however their claim maybe, globalization will continue to dominate the business world. Globalization: A Stabilizing Factor in International Business It is evident from examples stated before in this paper that globalization has brought a dramatic change in the world market. Business firms attempting to expand their geographic foot-print to meet consumer demand, extending their value chain to a global level, stepping into boundary-less retailing and logistics, international tie-ups to get hold of a wider share of customer base, these are because of globalization and eave helped stabilizing the international business community by allowing free movement of men and materials, knowledge sharing and easy access to financial capital. Globalization has indeed at its core eased the border constraints making them less important than before as countries and economies become dependent on each other for survival and progress. Cross-borders transactions have reached to a new level as a result of diverse business locations of firms and their customer base in a broader market which allows them to secure their investments via spreading risk factor. The ERM Global Village nails the concept down very firmly. If it was not globalization the world we live in would never have been what it is now. Variety of goods for the customers, cheap affordable prices, and access to bigger markets, greater employment opportunities, faster technology and trade knowledge are all a result of globalization. Globalization does have its own side effects on somewhat manner as discussed a while ago but, the point it has it helped making things better and convenient, well, the answer is yes. It certainly has pushed the barriers and allowed the world to connect better and stronger than ever. Conclusion: Do we pay consensus to the fact that globalization is good? It is a simple question but, enough to lead to a heated debate among the experts. However, the bottom line is that globalization has indeed created more opportunities for businesses to expand globally, reach out to the mass segment of customers in need, take a stride in terms of revenue generation and of course increase brand but the more the economic and political challenges which emerge at the same time may or may not be addressed meaningfully and chances are more the emerging economies might fail to set up a proper state framework and structure to succeed. Swimming with the tide is still the best option at hand when the stream takes you exactly where you want to be. How to cite A Study, Papers

Effect of Physical Environment on Organizational Behaviour

Question: Describe about the Effect of Physical Environment on Organizational Behaviour. Answer: Introduction The physical environment of a company is one of the important factors that mainly affect business performance. In recent times, managers attempt to improve conditions in the workplace. Internal elements such as poor infrastructural design, unstable operations, and many other issues significantly affect the growth of a company. Concerning a business firm`s profitability, employee efficiency and relation plays an important role. Companies focus on training and education facilities with a motive to increase labor skills. According to Wagner and Hollenbeck (2014), it is the responsibility of the management to check and create a suitable condition that safeguards the interest of the workers. Mentors greatly involve in defining and organizing the environment to best suit the workers. Further, the subject of internal surroundings and its effect on an organization`s development is a vital topic in the business world. The relationship between activities, methods used, company objectives, and the framework are an integral part of a business environment (Ryu Lee and Gon Kim 2012). The report studies various factors in a workplace and also takes into consideration the motivation and cultural trends of employees. Moreover to improve conditions, an analysis on efficient conflict solving is also included. In order to promote ideas and fulfill goals, companies aim to involve in the practice of strategy methods as well. Workplace Environment Factors With a growth of the world and business environment, there has also been a noticeable rise in internal physical factors that leads to the downfall of a company. Despite of a good pay package, employee performance depends on a list of several factors. One of the simplest methods that motivate workers is the issue of incentives and bonuses. According to McShane and Von Glinow (2015), the quality of business and a smooth flow of communication at all levels of the management influences achievements. Further, the attitude of employees towards their organization plays a major role in deciding future growth. A company is affected by an unstable relationship between the managers and staff. In order to implement proper decision making, collaboration and exchange of ideas proves to be beneficial. Some of the factors that directly affect the activities of a business are, Goal Setting: An open connection between supervisors and the employees develop company objectives. Moreover, mentors also set targets those maximize performance levels of the workers. A non-achievement of the rigid goals lowers motivation and consequently affects prosperity. Performance Feedback An upward flow of information relating to the performances of the workers leads to an excessive control by the supervisors. Alteration of the feedbacks leads to a rise of grapevine in the framework of the company. Role Congruity The organization depends on and also expects a lot from its employees. It is the responsibility of the supervisors to assign a task to the workers taking into consideration their capabilities (Naylor Pritchard and Ilgen 2013). Defined Processes In order to perform successfully, a company focuses on creating operational activities and providing necessary information to the employees. A clear understanding of the procedures increases feasibility. Managerial Support The management of a business firm involves in collecting and distributing resources among the different levels of the organizational framework to facilitate work. Further, immediate supervisors create formal and informal incentive plans that inspire workers (Wright Christensen and Isett 2013). Experts also help the needed to educate them about the use of new technologies. Job Aids According to Myers (2013), supply of templates and guides help the employees to maximize efficiency. In addition to checking errors, there arises a need for health and security schemes to gain trust and loyalty. Environmental Factors An element such as heat, power, rates and ventilation directly affect the health of the workers (Hartig et al. 2014). Increased temperature and improper lighting in industries lead to stress issues. Physical Elements The poor infrastructure and complex organizational structure constrain efficiency in the workplace. Furthermore, overcrowding and poor communication causes a downfall in performance levels. Employee Motivation According to Pinder (2014), the motivation of the employees is a much needed factor for successful operation of a company. In addition to influencing the employees, the ambition of the leaders plays a significant role in the prosperity of business. Concerning financial factors, issuing bonuses increase the productivity of the workers. An inspiring workplace includes a clear understanding of goals and objectives along with a continuous flow of communication among the top, middle and lower level management structure. The ground level employees greatly depend on their immediate mentors to help them in maximizing their skills and developing a sense of responsibility among them. Along with endangering loyalty, the top level managers use the tool of praise to motivate workers (Bryson and White 2013). Worker Culture A new person takes time to adapt to the traditions and cultures of the company. The diversification in communication patterns, colleague motives and supervisors attitudes largely influence the employment structure. Not adjusting to the prevailing trends gives rise to internal conflicts, gossips, politics and sometimes a significant amount of rumor. Additionally, a rise of the negativities in the framework also leads to an alteration in social practices and business factors that directly harm the revenue generation of the company. The intervention of superior authorities among the employees also has its adverse effects. Moreover physical environment factors add up to the internalities that influence anatomical structures. In order to gain stability and fill in differences between the employee, perception managers focus in matching the firm`s objectives with capabilities of individuals. According to Hill, Jones and Schilling (2014), a detailed study of the present issues is exercised to evaluate the degree of exposure and its effects on the business. The management in extraordinary situations involves in redesigning the workplace, employ newly designed tools and work towards a sustainability of the company environment. Effect of Physical Factors Workplace Design Over the years, the business framework has effectively made to the list of physical factors that directly affect business. The extra cost and intricate designs affect not only profitability but also the smooth functioning of a firm. A negative perception of the framework leads to decrease in productivity and high stress levels. Further, organizational design is one of the most important factors that affect employee behavior. As stated by Eden and Ackermann (2013), an appropriate workplace is comprised of a properly built workplace that best suits employees. In addition to increasing efficiency, open organization design aims to enhance the flow of mobile communication along with reducing setting up costs. As compared to conventional plans, the simple system of open plans enables employment of a vast number of workers. The firm relationship between managers and employees facilitates improvement in efficiency and performance levels. The flexible design specifically focuses on increment in morale and comfort. On the other hand, the same design also leads to a number of issues in the company. Over employment and no privacy zones are the primary problems that affect employees at work. Environmental Factors Indoor conditions in an industry mainly affect productivity of an organization. A feeling of discomfort and unhealthy internal climate directly leads to a downfall in employee activities. The increase in heat levels and improper lighting influences health standards. An issue of physical wellness and safety consequently affects flourishing of the company. Moreover, a dirty and unorganized workplace also creates a negative attitude of the workers. With an increase in innovation, members demand a visually attractive place to carry out activities. A suitable surrounding increases productivity and also motivates employees to attend work regularly. Sound problems in an industry directly harm the labors. Production processes in industrial segments give rise to a vital issue of noise pollution that only harms the external but also the internal business environment. With development in technology and use of machinery, there is a noticeable increase in stress disorders. Conflict Issues There arises a difference in the thought processes and attitudes of employees while operating as a group in an organization. A conflict in habits, approaches, and opinions slow down production process and also sometimes leads to rise in costs. As stated by David and David (2016), in order to participate in the highly competitive market, balance and coordination among business internalities are of great importance. The issue of increment in a clash among all levels of management causes a large damage to the company. Further, uneconomical communication flow also influences the decision making process. Biased division of responsibilities and poor organization skills affect the workplace environment. Among all other physical issues that have an impact on a business, the element of conflict among the employees and supervisors takes time to resolve and lets the rival companies take benefits out of it. Business managers involve in building up of guidelines and ethical codes to ensure that the work is carried out in a most efficient manner. Furthermore, a regular check and equal allocation of responsibilities to the workers also improves conditions in the company. An intervention of supervisors in solving issues has both positive and negative impacts on performance. It is often that more skilled workers emphasize superiority on the rest. An introduction of new technology and innovative mechanisms brings along with it a broad range of problems (Heo and Cheon 2013). Inadaptability and inflexibility of the workers to the emerging innovations gives rise to instability among the heads and lower levels of the company. Improvement of Workplace Environment With an increase in physical environment issues, industries in the world have effectively attempted to solve the problems and restore business conditions. In order to promote communication and involve employees to take an active part in decision making, the company aims to reconstruct the business framework into a simpler and transparent structure (Bourne 2016). In addition to installing new furniture and adding color in the office, managers seek expert help to develop a better attractive workspace. A Clear understanding of input sources, production processes, distribution, and marketing mix improves employee morale and trust. Furthermore, organizing new promotional schemes has proved to be fruitful for business. An equal delegation of responsibilities to operate in the confusion free environment helps to increase productivity. Recently, the policy of offering bonuses and incentives in festive seasons and at times of extraordinary performances has effectively added value in the employment chain. Providing the employees with a significant amount of free services has effectively motivated them to work towards achieving company goals. Regarding environmental conditions in business, a system of air conditioning and application of safety standards has improved problematic conditions. Organizations have led down a well-organized set of rules and regulations that safeguard the interest and also look after the wellness of the employees (McQuaid et al. 2012). The several noise control methods and eco-friendly processes have also sufficiently mitigated environmental issues. Offering of casual leaves, medical facility, and periodic heath checkups develops a sense of importance among the workers. As opined by Goetsch and Davis (2014), to promote a development of every employee, enterprises have greatly taken an interest in opting for a well-developed training facility. Skilled workers are of great value to their firms. Further, certain companies reform their mission statement and methodology in relation to the opinions of every worker. The introduction of flexible timings, work from home schemes and other interactive sessions create a more pleasant environment for work. Companies also focus on creating community groups that involve in understanding the needs and desires of the employees. Conclusion Analyzing the topic, it can be seen that physical environment incurs a considerable impact on modern business companies. The unstable relationship between the internal factors and a complex web structure greatly affects prosperity. Internal factors in an enterprise exert a large influence on interests, attitude, and performance of employees. An unhappy situation consequently leads to a downfall of the company. Heat, lighting, strategies, policies, rule, regulations and several other fluctuating factors have been contributing towards the inefficiency of a business as a whole. Looking into the various elements, it can be concluded that productivity directly relies upon the indoor conditions. Moreover, a broad discussion about the altering variables not only affects the industry but also its surroundings. Finally, it can be inferred that flexibility in the business framework and decision making of the managers plays an important role in solving the arising issues. Development of an employee friendly environment ensures an increase in delivery levels. In order to reach the peak of success, managers provide an immense support and encourage workers to perform in the best possible way. References Bourne, L., 2016.Stakeholder relationship management: a maturity model for organisational implementation. CRC Press. Bryson, A. and White, M., 2013. Human resource management practices, intrinsic motivation and employees overall attitudes.Human relations. David, F. and David, F.R., 2016. Strategic Management: A Competitive Advantage Approach, Concepts and Cases. Eden, C. and Ackermann, F., 2013.Making strategy: The journey of strategic management. Sage. Goetsch, D.L. and Davis, S.B., 2014.Quality management for organizational excellence. pearson. Hartig, T., Mitchell, R., De Vries, S. and Frumkin, H., 2014. Nature and health.Annual Review of Public Health,35, pp.207-228. Heo, M.S. and Cheon, M.J., 2013. An Empirical Study on the Relationships among Conflict between Employees, Authentic Attitude of Knowledge Creation, and Innovative Behaviors.The Knowledge Management Society of Korea,14(5), pp.47-74. Hill, C.W., Jones, G.R. and Schilling, M.A., 2014.Strategic management: theory: an integrated approach. Cengage Learning. McQuaid, R., Hollywood, E., Bond, S., Canduela, J., Richard, A. and Blackledge, G., 2012. Fit for work? Health and Wellbeing of Employees in Employee Owned Business.London: Employee Ownership Association. https://employeeownership. co. uk/download/NDE0. McShane, S.L. and Von Glinow, M.A., 2015. Organizational Behavior 7/e. Myers, M.D., 2013.Qualitative research in business and management. Sage. Naylor, J.C., Pritchard, R.D. and Ilgen, D.R., 2013.A theory of behavior in organizations. Academic Press. Pinder, C.C., 2014.Work motivation in organizational behavior. Psychology Press. Ryu, K., Lee, H.R. and Gon Kim, W., 2012. The influence of the quality of the physical environment, food, and service on restaurant image, customer perceived value, customer satisfaction, and behavioral intentions.International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management,24(2), pp.200-223. Wagner III, J.A. and Hollenbeck, J.R., 2014.Organizational behavior: Securing competitive advantage. Routledge. Wright, B.E., Christensen, R.K. and Isett, K.R., 2013. Motivated to adapt? The role of public service motivation as employees face organizational change.Public Administration Review,73(5), pp.738-747.

Sunday, May 3, 2020

Contract Law and Ethical Issues

Question: Discuss about the Contract Law and Ethical Issues. Answer: Introduction: The case study provided in the assignment focuses on the enforceable agreement that clearly depicts the contract law according to the Australian law of contracts. The fact that is focused is that Jane is selling its brand new lotus super 7 sports car to Jack with the amount of $25000 where the market price of the Lotus Super 7 Sports car is seemed to be $25000 (Anon, 2016). The condition of the vehicle as mentioned is seemed to be in the good condition. With focusing on the offer made by Jane to Jack, it represents the invalid offer made as referring to the practical conditions of law. Bust in this case Jack accepted the offer made by Jane and also the contract is done verbally which represents that the contract is seemed to be value less in nature. Issues The issues that are focused in this case study is the invalidation of the contract which is seemed to be the verbal contract made without the agreement. The invalidation of the contract helps in the creation of the performance that helps in the mitigation of the difficulties that arose in this case. The legal framework also helps in the creation of the issues of creation of the deal verbally without any agreement (, 2016). This case also enhances the case for the settlement of the illegal framework that helps in creation of the issues for Jack and Jane. Henceforth the legal frameworks are mentioned with the mitigation of the issues of this case for the appropriate enhancement of the contract. That is why it depicts the failure of the decisions created by the law of the contract of the Australia with carrying out the contract without any agreement. Rules The acts that are applied in this case are the enforceable agreements with implication of the Australian laws of the contract. For this reason, the contract also helps in the mitigation of the illegal activities carried out by the Jack and Jane (The Law Handbook, 2015). It also helps in the enhancement of the issues that are required for the consideration of the acts with providing the reasonable money according to the laws of the contract. It also helps in the creation of the deals with the enhancement of the market and the legal creation of the product also helps in the creation of the appropriate rules with the consideration of the remedy clauses that defines the enforcement of the agreements with the creation of the agreement contract between them. Application The application of the contract helps in the creation of enhancement of the agreement with the appropriate following of the contract. It thereby also helps in the creation of the breaching of the contract with not following the rules and the conditions of the laws of the contract. It henceforth also helps in the creation of the breaching of the contract and thereby the contract leads to the breaching with the implementation of the clauses (PHILLIPS, 2008). Then the contract also helps in the creation of the remedy for the contract and also it helps in the breaching of the contract with the creation of the verbal communication. It also helps in the creation of the enhancement of the contract that helps in the implementation of the appropriate laws that are seemed to be helpful for the contract with the appropriate enactment of the contract (, 2016). For the consideration of the contract, the benefits of the contract can only be received by following the contract and it also h elps in the creation of the particular agreement appropriately with the consideration of the case of the contract. Conclusion As per the laws of the common law of Australia, the enactment of the laws of the contract helps in the enactment of the laws in the case of the Jack and Jane. The consideration of the contact helps in the consideration of the laws and the regulations helps in the creation of the enforceable acts in the case of the promises made. It thereby provides the breaking of the contract with undertaking the verbal communication (WILLETT, 2011). The benefits of the enforceable agreements help in the enforcement of the acts and it also helps in the consideration of enforcing the promises and it also shows the breaching of the contract with the implementation of the mitigation techniques. Issues In the given case study, a shipbuilder entered into a contract with North Ocean tankers to build a tanker for them. In US dollars the contract was done and the agreement didnt include any provisions for the fluctuations of currency. In the mid of the construction of the ship, the currency was devalued by the government of United States by 10 percent. Due to the devaluation of the currency, shipbuilder started to make losses on the contract (Radan and Gooley, 2009). Therefore, due to the loss on the agreement shipbuilder demanded an extra amount of US $3 million or they would stop the work. North Ocean Tankers agreed to pay as because it was essential for them to receive the ship on time. North Ocean Tankers did not take actions against shipbuilder in order to recover the excess amount till nine months after the delivery. Rules The rights of the consumers in Australia are protected by Australian contract law which is governed by common law. The contract law imposes rules and regulations on the basis of terms and conditions in the contract, to make a legal contract and dealing with the parties involved in the contract. A contract is bind legally and includes set of promises. In the given case study, the contract between shipbuilder and North Ocean Tankers are violated (Barker, 2005). A promise is undertaken under a set of conditions and terms and it also includes legal formalities. The party gets remedies if there is a breach of contract. The party would be entitled to the damages and entitled to remedies. The contract law explains the procedures to determine the extent of the damages. The consumers are protected under the contract law and from unfair trade practices. In the given case, the contract between shipbuilder and North Ocean Tankers are violated (Carter, 2006). Due to devaluation of currency, shipb uilder suffered losses on contract and demanded extra amount. The shipbuilder forced North Ocean Tankers to pay an extra amount. On the other hand, till nine months North Ocean tankers did not took any actions against shipbuilder. Therefore, both the parties violated the contract law of Australia and both the parties are liable. Application In the given case, the terms and conditions of the contract has been violated. Therefore, legal actions and remedies are available as per the Australian contract law. There was an agreement between shipbuilder and North Ocean Tankers and the contract was in US dollars. The contract did not included provision for currency fluctuations. The currency of United States devalued in the mid of the ship construction (Carter, 2012). The shipbuilder started to make losses and demanded an additional amount of US $3 million. The shipbuilder forced North Ocean Tankers to make an extra payment otherwise they will not complete the construction of ship. The demand of shipbuilder was agreed by North Ocean Takers as because they need the ship on time. Till nine months after the delivery of the ship North Ocean Tankers did not took any actions against shipbuilder (Ellinghaus, 2007). There was no provision for the currency fluctuation in the contract but shipbuilder demanded extra pay for the losses inc urred. On the other hand, North Ocean tankers also did not take any action after the delivery of the ship till nine months. Therefore, as per the contract law both the parties have committed an illegal act. It was important for North Ocean Tankers to take actions against shipbuilder as per the contract law as the company violated the terms and conditions of the contract (Watson, Gleeson and Higgins, 2013). Therefore, North Ocean Tankers will not be able to recover excess amount of money. Conclusion The contract law of a country establishes the rules of a contract by which the parties of the contract use to be bonded. A contract should have a valid offer and offer must be considered by the entire parties before completion of the contract. All the parties should be agreed to the term and conditions of the contract and all the terms and condition must be cleared to the entire parties, who are going to engage in a legal contract prior to make a legal contract. 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